The medieval Irish annalists claimed to trace the genealogy of the Gaelic tribes all the way back to Adam, the first man according to the Bible. Rather than discount this claim as fantasy, an attempt is made to reconcile the Biblical origin myth with the Irish annalists' version with a new and unique theory as to the identity of "Adam":
Archaeology, anthropology, and the bible all suggest that the pre-Celtic peoples inhabited an area now referred to as the Fertile Crescent. Around 4,000 BC some natural catastrophe occurred, probably a large flood that forced the various tribes of this land to disperse. The ancestors of the O’Sullivan clan migrated north and settled in the steppes of the Caucasus Mountains and the northern shore of the Black Sea on the lower courses of the Don and Dnieper rivers. From this rugged land, later known as Scythia, there originated several waves of invasions into Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The invaders who went west would become known collectively as the Celts; while the tribes that remained in the steppes became known as the Scythians. The tribes that invaded Asia Minor were known as the Galatians and the Judes. The Father of the Scythians, Celts, Galatians, and Judes was Magog, a revered common ancestor of these people, who were at one time collectively referred to as the Magi.
In the Paleolithic era, it appears that the ancestors of the O’Sullivan clan were living in the fertile delta between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, now referred to as Mesopotamia. During this time, the Old Stone Age, these people foraged for food, wielding primitive stone and flint weapons such as harpoons and spears. They used shards of bone as needles and strips of leather as thread with which they tailored their animal skin clothing.
Their only art consisted of remedial drawings and paintings. Their embryonic culture was restricted to ceremonial dancing and some form of percussion music. They worshiped the sun and perceived fire to be the manifestation of God on earth. At this stage they depended on flint or the chance lightening strike to supply them with fire. With only the barest of life’s amenities, these hearty individuals survived four ice ages.
The Mesolithic era of Europe began in the French Pyrenees about 8000 BC. This period was characterized by a transition from food gathering economies to organized hunting economies, as the last ice sheets receded north. This was probably the time during which tribes were beginning to be defined and a primordial kingship developed. The sun and fire were still worshiped by the ancestors of the O’Sullivan clan in the Fertile Crescent.
This clan, still in Mesopotamia, was the first to enter the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age, around 4500 BC. Over the following 500 years it would develop a fledgling agricultural science and begin to cultivate crops rather than to forage for food. The domestication of livestock evolved during this same era. The evolution of a food production economy was not only due to the inherent intelligence of these people, but also because the region was rich with the wild grasses that were the forerunners of millet, barley, and wheat. The ancestral forms of the domestic goat, sheep, pig, and cattle were also abundant in this part of the world.
Cultural advancements of this time included the use of polished stone, the making of pottery, and the weaving of textiles. With the production of goods also came the concept of trade. Commerce was established across the Fertile Crescent to Egypt and beyond. This trade prompted sea faring and navigation, and primitive shipbuilding commenced.
In addition to these important advancements, two very remarkable developments with mammoth long-term consequences occurred during this period. The first was the gradual inception of the proto-Indo-European language, of which English and Irish are both descended.
The second advancement involved man’s control of fire. There is no record of any human community that has existed without the knowledge of fire and the ability to kindle it. We know that the so-called Peking man used fire as early as 500,000 years ago. In June 1955, it was established beyond all doubt that a pre-homo-sapiens species known as Australopithecus promethus, of South Africa, had the use of tools and fire. Since this “man” may have lived over a million years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that later stages of human evolution would have been interrelated with and possibly even altered by the unique ability to make use of fire.
However, prior to the Neolithic age, flint was used to produce flame. The endless search for flint resulted in the exploration of the misty crags of the stark mountains to the north of the Fertile Crescent. It was during these expeditions in the mountains that the ancestors of the O’Sullivan clan stumbled upon crystal and applied their stone polishing technique to it. This resulted in the production of the first lens.
A remarkable discovery was then made. The sun’s energy could be concentrated by this clear stone to create fire. The crystal was considered to be sacred because of this unique property. An interesting account of this phenomenon is found in The Ancient Secret, Fire from the Sun by Flavia Anderson (ISBN: 0-902103-13-X). The following is an excerpt from that work:
“We come now to another means whereby men could bring down fire from heaven. The following will be found in The Orphic Book of Stones:
‘Take in your hands a crystal, a glittering transparent stone, a ray of clear, divine brightness. In heaven it particularly delights the heart of the immortal gods, and if you go to shrine carrying one in your hands, none of the gods will refuse your requests. Listen then, that you may learn the powers of this gleaming stone. If you wish to stir up flames without living fire, you order the stone to be laid on top of dry firebrands. Then, when the sun is shining from the opposite direction, it will immediately unfold above the brands a thin ray. As soon as this touches the dry, thick, material, it will give rise to smoke, then slight fire, and finally a great flame. This, the ancient goddesses called the Sacred Fire. Therefore I trust that haunches, so pleasing to the immortals, burn with no other flame. In addition I shall tell you as a friend this great miracle: As soon as you lift from the fire that very crystal which is the cause of the flame, it is cold to the touch, and, if placed on the kidneys, will relieve pain.’
The crystal described here was probably a sphere, for the following reasons: In the case of a crystal ball the focal point would lie just within the surface of the sphere, but the emergent beam would still be strong enough to ignite dry timber in contact with the ball’s surface. We shall presently see that in the case of a crystal lens or a hollow glass sphere filled with water, the focal point lies outside the surface, and would therefore need to be held or fixed above or away from the tinder. I am indebted to the late Sir James French, Chairman of Barr & Stroud’s glass and telescopic works in Glasgow for the above information re focal points, a subject he knew well for his firm was manufacturing all our lenses and telescopes for our armaments in the war.”
To the sun-worshiping primitives of Asia-minor, the ability of a crystal ball to incarnate god on earth, in the form of fire from the sun, was nothing short of miraculous. The discovery of the magical crystal ball was the single most important event in the cultural evolution of the European peoples. It sparked an intense interest in the physical sciences beginning as element worship, progressing to alchemy, and ultimately developing into chemistry and physics. It catapulted one special tribe ahead of its neighbors in the fields of metallurgy and weaponry. It created a unique connection between god (the sun) and this one lucky tribe. It created the concept of divine destiny, and the god-given right of one special tribe to rule over all others. It was the source of the cultural phenomenon known now as the “divine right of kings”.
This ‘gift from god’ changed this tribe’s relationship with its creator. With a crystal ball this tribe could now summon its god to earth to do its bidding. God changed from being a distant, impersonal source of lightning bolts, floods, and other catastrophes to an intimate provider of light and heat. The god-man relationship shifted from fear to love.
This tribe began to see themselves as “children of god”. The king of this tribe became recognized as the “son of god”. The recording of royal genealogies served to preserve “god’s bloodline”. This concept of god incarnated on earth as man was the seed for the religions of the Celts, the Egyptians, and the northern tribes of Judah.
The individual who actually made the discovery of the fire-producing ability of the crystal ball was hailed as a great wizard and chief. His descendants were honored as the chosen people of god. The name Adhaim (Adam), which means “I kindle” in the ancient language of the Indo-Europeans, was given to the first master of crystal-fire in the tribe. The secret of the crystal ball was only shared with the descendants of Adhaim. This holy source of fire was kept as a closely guarded secret for many centuries. Anything relating to their worship of the sun or to their physical sciences could only be discussed among the royal family and it was forbidden to put the information into a written form. The tribe’s secret knowledge of optics and, later, metallurgy made it culturally and militarily superior to the neighboring races. The descendants of Adhaim would become the dominant overlords of the indigenous peoples of Europe and Asia-minor. The family tree of the tribe of Adhaim was carefully recorded. It can be found in the ancient annals of several peoples including the Irish and the Jews. The Judeo-Christian movement would later mistake the genealogy of the tribe of Adhaim, found in Genesis of the Old Testament, as the genealogy for all of the peoples of the world. But in truth, the genealogy of Genesis pertains only to the family of Adhaim.
Adhaim was crowned king and from him descended the royal bloodline of his people. The concept of a divine hereditary kingship is rooted in this event. The subsequent kings derived their authority from their descent from Adhaim, the original ‘sun king’. The royal family was recognized as being the “children of the sun”, the human incarnation of God on earth. Adhaim is the oldest known ancestor of the O’Sullivan clan.
This long and ancient bloodline has been referred to as ‘the river of the sun’, or the ‘bloodline of god’. The Indo-European root for ‘river’ is ‘avon’ (abhain in Gaelic). The Indo-European root for ‘sun’ is ‘sawel’ (suile in Gaelic).
Sawel; Sawol; Swol; Sol = Indo-European Root for sun
Avani; Avon; Abhan = Sanskrit / Indo-European root for river
Suile = Old Gaelic word for sun
Abhainn = Old Gaelic word for river.
About 3500 BC, the tribe of Adhaim began hammering copper into utensils and weapons. This was the advent of the Metal Ages. By 3000 BC, these people had combined their knowledge of metals and fire to produce bronze, an alloy of copper with a 10% mix of tin. Thus was born the science of metallurgy.
About 2348 BC, the entire region now known as the Middle East, and perhaps other parts of the world as well, experienced a devastating flood. Nua (Noah), one of the chiefs of the tribe of Adhaim, was forced to escape to the northern highlands of Ararat to save his family, subjects, and livestock. His family included his four sons, Deifreach (Japhet), Shem, Ham, Bith and their wives. They were the only recorded survivors of the royal sun family. This move from Mesopotamia to the mountains was the First Adamic Migration.
With the crops ruined and much of the livestock destroyed, it was clear that the time had come for them to explore other lands to support their people. Shem directed the explorations of the eastern lands but maintained his base in the Fertile Crescent. Ham led his followers west. Japhet, the oldest son, led his sept north to the valleys of the Caucasus Mountains. Bith, recorded by Japhet’s annalists but not mentioned by Shem’s, disappeared into the dustbin of history. In some accounts Bith is reported to have died in the flood.
Maig-Og (Magog), a descendant of Japhet and ancestor of the O’Sullivan clan, eventually crossed the Caucasus range and conquered the indigenous people living between the Dnepir and the Don rivers. His descendant, Baoth, established the kingdom of Scythia and he and his royal progeny ruled as warrior overlords to the indigenous peasants. This move from the Ararat highlands to the steppes of the Caucasus Mountains was the Second Adamic Migration.
As cadet branches of the Scythian royal family would develop, they were forced to move west in search of other tribes to conquer and rule. These successive waves of proto-Celtic invaders to Europe would eventually create what would later be known as “The Celtic Empire”. The recorded Adamic ancestors of the O’Sullivan family were Adhaim, Seithe, Einin, Caoin, Macasamnail, Dearadh, Eineacht, Meathas-Ulla, Leamhnacht, Nua, Deifreach, Maig-Og, and Baoth.
The first ancestor of the O’Sullivan clan for whom we have a recorded history is King Phoeniusa Farsaidh of Scythia, who was born about 1596 BC. For clan genealogic purposes he has been assigned the reference number .
The Heberian Main Genealogical Line
1596 Birth of Phoeniusa Farsaidh , king of Scythia
1571 Birth of Niul , lord of Capacyront
1546 Birth of Gaodhal , lord of Capacyront
1521 Birth of Asruth , lord of Capacyront
1496 Birth of Sruth , last lord of Capacyront
1471 Birth of Heber Scut , king of Scythia
1446 Birth of Beouman , king of Scythia
1421 Birth of Ogaman , king of Scythia
1396 Birth of Tait , last king of Scythia
1371 Birth of Agnon , chief brigand of the Caspian Sea
1346 Birth of Lamhfionn , last chief brigand of the Caspian Sea
1321 Birth of Heber Glunfionn , king of Gothia
1296 Birth of Agnon Fionn , king of Gothia
1271 Birth of Febric Glas , king of Gothia
1246 Birth of Nenuall , king of Gothia
1221 Birth of Nuadhad , king of Gothia
1196 Birth of Alladh , king of Gothia
1171 Birth of Arcadh , king of Gothia
1146 Birth of Deag , king of Gothia
1121 Birth of Brath , last king of Gothia
1096 Birth of Breoghan , king of Spain and Portugal
1071 Birth of Bile , king of Spain and Portugal
[Bile had a younger brother named Ithe, from whom descend the Ithian clans of Ireland. See above.]
1046 Birth of Milesius , last king of Spain and Portugal
1021 Birth of Heber Fionn , Joint ArdRi of Ireland
[Heber was the oldest son of Milesius to survive the invasion of Ireland. He had a younger brother named Heremon, who also survived, from whom descend the Heremonian clans. An even younger brother named Ir was the first brother to die in the invasion, but he left an adult son named Heber Don, from whom descend the Irian clans. See above.]
996 Birth of Conmaol , 12th ArdRi of Ireland
971 Birth of Eochaidh Faobhar Glas , 17th ArdRi of Ireland
946 Birth of Eanna Airgthach , 21st ArdRi of Ireland
921 Birth of Glas , king of Munster
896 Birth of Ros , king of Munster
871 Birth of Rotheachta , king of Munster
846 Birth of Fearard , king of Munster
821 Birth of Cas , king of Munster
796 Birth of Munmoin , 25th ArdRi of Ireland
771 Birth of Fauldergoid , 26th ArdRi of Ireland
746 Birth of Cas Cedchaingnigh , king of Munster
721 Birth of Failbhe Iolcorach , king of Munster
696 Birth of Ronnach , king of Munster
671 Birth of Rotheachta , 35th ArdRi of Ireland
646 Birth of Eliomh Ollfhionach , 36th ArdRi of Ireland
621 Birth of Art Imleach , 38th ArdRi of Ireland
596 Birth of Breas Rioghacta , 40th ArdRi of Ireland
571 Birth of Seidnae Innaridh , 43rd ArdRi of Ireland
546 Birth of Duach Fionn , 45th ArdRi of Ireland
521 Birth of Eanna Dearg , 47th ArdRi of Ireland
496 Birth of Lughaidh Iardhonn , 48th ArdRi of Ireland
471 Birth of Eochaidh , 50th ArdRi of Ireland
446 Birth of Lughaidh , 52nd ArdRi of Ireland
421 Birth of Art , 54th ArdRi of Ireland
396 Birth of Oilill Fionn , 56th ArdRi of Ireland
371 Birth of Eochaidh , 57th ArdRi of Ireland
346 Birth of Lughaidh Lagha , 60th ArdRi of Ireland
321 Birth of Reacht Righ-dearg , king of Munster
296 Birth of Cobthach Caomh , king of Munster
271 Birth of Moghcorb , 72nd ArdRi of Ireland
246 Birth of Fearcorb , 75th ArdRi of Ireland
221 Birth of Adhambra Foltcain , 78th ArdRi of Ireland
196 Birth of Niadhsedhaman , 83rd ArdRi of Ireland
171 Birth of Ionadmaor , 87th ArdRi of Ireland
146 Birth of Lughaidh Luaighne , 89th ArdRi of Ireland
121 Birth of Cairbre Lusgleathan , king of Munster
96 Birth of Duach Dalladh Deadha , 91st ArdRi of Ireland
71 Birth of Eochaidh Garbh , king of Munster
49 Birth of Muireadach Muchna , king of Munster
29 Birth of Loich Mor , king of Munster
9 Birth of Eanna Muncain , king of Munster
11 Birth of Dearg Theine , king of Munster
42 Birth of Dearg , king of Munster
73 Birth of Mogh Neid , king of Munster
104 Birth of Eoghan Mor , Joint ArdRi of Ireland
135 Birth of Oilill Olum , king of Munster
170 Birth of Eoghan Mor II , crown prince of Munster
215 Birth of Fiacha Maolleathan , king of Munster
260 Birth of Oilill Flann-Beag , king of Munster
300 Birth of Lughaidh , king of Munster
340 Birth of Corc , king of Munster, lord of Cashel
380 Birth of Nathfraoch , crown prince of Munster
420 Birth of Aonghus , king of Munster, lord of Cashel
455 Birth of Felim , king of Munster, lord of Cashel
495 Birth of Crimthann , crown prince of Munster
535 Birth of Aodh Dubh , king of Munster, lord of Cashel
571 Birth of Finghin , last king of Munster, last lord of Cashel
[Upon the death of Finghin, his younger brother Failbhe Flann became king, according to the laws of tanistry. The illustrious McCarthy Clan descends from Failbhe Flann.]
606 Birth of Seachnasagh , lord of Knockgraffon
641 Birth of Fiachra na Gaircedh , lord of Knockgraffon
674 Birth of Flann Noba , lord of Knockgraffon
714 Birth of Dubhinracht , lord of Knockgraffon
754 Birth of Morough , lord of Knockgraffon
794 Birth of Moghtigern , lord of Knockgraffon
834 Birth of Maolura , lord of Knockgraffon
874 Birth of Eochaid (An Ui Suilleabhainn) 
914 Birth of Lorcan , lord of Knockgraffon
954 Birth of Buadhach Atha-Cra , lord of Knockgraffon
994 Birth of Aodh , lord of Knockgraffon
1034 Birth of Cathal , lord of Knockgraffon
1074 Birth of Buadhach O’Sullivan , lord of Knockgraffon
1114 Birth of Maccraith , lord of Knockgraffon
1134 Birth of Donal Mor , last lord of Knockgraffon
1166 Birth of Giolla Mochoda 
[Giolla Mochoda had a younger brother named Giolla na bhFlann from whom descends the O'Sullivan Beara sept. The Lawson family is a sub-branch of the Beara sept, descending from Lauras.]
1200 Birth of Dunlong , the O’Sullivan Mor
1235 Birth of Murtagh Mor , the O’Sullivan Mor
[Murtagh Mor had a younger brother named Gille Mochodh from whom descends the illustrious MacGillicuddy clan. The McGillicuddy Papers list Dunlong  as "Domhnal, thirty-fifth in descent from Oilill Olum". The present MacGillicuddy Chief, Dermot Patrick Donough, enjoys hereditary rights of primogeniture as recognized by the government of Ireland and sits on the Council of Chiefs. According to some annalists, the MacElligott family is a sub-branch of the MacGillicuddy Clan.]
1270 Birth of Bernard , the O’Sullivan Mor
1305 Birth of Buochan , the O'Sullivan Mor
1340 Birth of Dunlong , the O’Sullivan Mor
1375 Birth of Cragh , the last O’Sullivan Mor
[Upon the death of Cragh, his younger brother named Rory became the O'Sullivan Mor, according to the laws of tanistry. The "O'Sullivan Mor" and O'Sullivan Vera septs descend from Rory. The Doran, Penfeather, and Quaile families are sub-branches of the O'Sullivan Vera sept.]
1410 Birth of Donal , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1444 Birth of Conor , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1474 Birth of Eoghan , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1504 Birth of Buodach , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1534 Birth of Donogh (Dermot) , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1564 Birth of Conor , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1594 Birth of Owen , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1624 Birth of Dermot , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1654 Birth of Owen , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
1684 Birth of Dermot , the O’Sullivan MacCragh
[The O'Sullivan MacCragh settled in the Cork townland of Derryconnery, near Glengarriff, and became locally known as "The O'Sullivan Murts".]
1714Birth of Sean O’Sullivan MacCragh 
1748Birth of Seamus O’Sullivan MacCragh 
1788Birth of Murtagh ‘Crah’ O’Sullivan MacCragh 
1816Birth of Murtagh ‘Crah’ O’Sullivan MacCragh II
1857Birth of Mortimer James , O’Sullivan MacCragh
1890Birth of Daniel Joseph I , O’Sullivan MacCragh
1920Birth of Daniel Joseph II , O’Sullivan MacCragh
1947Birth of Kathleen O’Sullivan MacCragh [121K]
1949Birth of Daniel Joseph III [121D], O’Sullivan MacCragh [Taoiseach]
1955Birth of Gary Brian [121G] O’Sullivan MacCragh [Patron]
1965Birth of Robert Barry [121R], O’Sullivan MacCragh
1967Birth of Christine Ryan O’Sullivan MacCragh [122K-1]
1968Birth of Daniel Joseph IV O’Sullivan MacCragh [122D-1]
1975Birth of Leigh O’Sullivan Greiner [122D-2]
1981Birth of Heather Anne O’Sullivan Ryan [122G-1]
1982Birth of Jennifer Rileigh O’Sullivan MacCragh [122G-2]
1984Birth of Patrick Brian O’Sullivan MacCragh [122D-3]
1988Birth of Garryowen Brian O’Sullivan MacCragh [122G-3] [Tanist]
1994Birth of Erin Alvey O’Sullivan MacCragh [122G-4]
1995Birth of Robert Barryowen O’Sullivan II MacCragh [122R-1]
1996Birth of Kelly Shea O’Sullivan MacCragh [123D-1-1]
1998Birth of Megan Ann O’Sullivan MacCragh [123D-1-2]
1999Birth of Donal Mor Connor O’Sullivan MacCragh [122G-5]
1999Birth of Sean James O’Sullivan MacCragh [122R-2]
2006Birth of Daniel Joseph O’Sullivan MacCragh [122R-3]
2006Birth of Charles Richard Greiner II [123D-2-1]
2007Birth of Vincent Justinian O’Sullivan Ryan [123G-1-1]
2007Birth of Connor Sullivan McKinlay [123K-1-1]
2008 Birth of Riliegh Ann O'Sullivan MacCragh [122R-4]
2008 Birth of Thomas Daniel Greiner [123D-2-2]
2009 Birth of Gary Brian Culver O'Sullivan MacCragh [122R-5]
2009 Birth of Kip Connor O'Sullivan Ryan [123G-1-2]
2010 Birth of Brady Patrick Greiner [123D-2-3]
2011 Birth of Alexandria Hypatia O'Sullivan Ryan [123G-1-3]
2013 Birth of Caroline Kepler O'Sullivan Ryan [123G-1-4]
2015 Birth of Julianne Vera O'Sullivan Ryan [123G-1-5]
Note: Primogeniture, as presented in O’Donovan’s Ordinance Survey, is documented to Dermot . The Book of Munster records the bloodline to Dermot . Sean  and Seamus , the progenitors of the O'Sullivan MacCragh of Derryconnery, are recorded in the Account Books of the Bantry House, Bantry, County Cork, Ireland. The O'Sullivan MacCragh of Derryconnery have always claimed seniority and there is ample documentary evidence to support this claim. In 2012, Fionna Fitzsimmons, a certified genealogist who specializes in the succession of Irish chiefs, was commissioned to specifically investigate this claim. No contrary evidence was found. Murtagh  and Murtagh II  are listed in Griffiths Valuation. Mortimer  and Daniel  are found in the church records for the parish of Kilcasken, County Cork, Ireland. Daniel  and all of his progeny were born in the United States and have American documentation. All dates are approximate before 1857. The direct paternal descent of our Patron, Gary B. O'Sullivan, from Cragh, the O'Sullivan Mor of Dunkerron Castle, [c. fifteenth century] was confirmed by Riobard O'Dwyer, N.T., a certified Irish genealogist, Companion of the Order of Merit, and expert in the pedigrees of the O’Sullivan clan. An independent investigator, William Randolph McCreight, validated Mr. O’Dwyer’s findings after extensive research and published his conclusions in O'Sullivan. The Earliest Irish Royal Family: History and Genealogy. A fourth investigation was undertaken by Don Alfonso Ceballos Escalera y Gil, Marques de la Floresta, the Cronista Rey de Armas (Chief Herald) in Spain, who also concluded that our Patron enjoys hereditary rights of primogeniture. Don Alfonso serves as personal heraldic officer to King Felipe VI of Spain.